In a scaling well, a minor part of the solids tend to adhere to the wellbore, and the rest will flow in bulk to the surface. Analysis of scale particles from produced water is therefore an excellent scale monitoring method. Traditionally dissolved ion concentrations can giver ambiguous conclusions, since scale deposited in the wellbore and in the reservoir can give similar signature. Since solid scale particles cannot be transported through the formation, scale found in the BSA analysis is always formed inside the well. This is illustrated in this animation.
A small amount of produced water is filtered through small filters for further analysis by Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM) and Element Energy dispersive System (EDS). Automatic particle analysis is used to measure each scale crystal's size and composition. On the basis of these data a classification and processing is performed by tailor made software, ScaleMAN. Accurate quantification can be given to show the amount of each scale type, morphology of the crystals and images.
Our tailor made software, ScaleMAN, is used for reporting and graphical presentation of the data. It includes an online secure database and tools for processing and plotting.
This service is delivered with a short turnaround time, usually 2-3 days after the sample is made available at the base or heliport. All logistics after the base/helicopter base is handled by Scale Protection.
The Bulk Scale Analysis (BSA) workflow
- Produced water is sampled and filtered onsite, to be representative for the well flow
- A tailor made ESEM and EDS is used for the analysis, where automatic particle analysis is utilized to identify both the amount and type of deposits on the filter
- The data is processed in a software where mineral classification and upscaled data is calculated and presented
- Fast turnaround is important for utilization of the data for scale management decisions. In all cases the report is delivered no more than 3 days after filter is received
The analysis results can be reported in several different ways:
The data is stored online and a tailor made software, ScaleMAN, which is included in the service. The data is then available everywhere and can efficiently be analyzed by a flexible software.